Thursday, August 27, 2020

Class discussion you will identify wage and salary components of an Essay

Class conversation you will distinguish pay and compensation segments of a powerful execution evaluation program - Essay Example parability Survey and specified that before leading the pay and pay study, â€Å"an examination of the worker pay framework ought to be founded on an intensive comprehension of material guidelines and investigation of the faculty strategies and techniques, procedures and consumptions supporting an agency’s remuneration plan† (Center for Community Futures, n.d., p. 1). At that point, the anticipated degree of remuneration ought to be unequivocally decided and recognized; related to the assets or assets of the association. This would empower the chiefs to measure the capacities with regards to making the essential changes in pay scale, contingent upon the aftereffects of the compensation and pay study. It was underlined that pay and pay reviews are instruments which help with keeping up â€Å"internal and outer compensation value for employees† (Chapter 9: Managing Compensation, 2012, p. 34). In that capacity, to lead boss started pay and pay studies, the accompanying pivotal advances and factors should be thought of: (1) the suitable choice of key occupations to be reviewed; (2) an assurance of the important work advertise; (3) choosing associations to contrast current compensation structure and; (4) settling on the data that should be gathered: compensation, benefits, pay approaches, and other relevant information influencing wages and pay rates; (5) successfully incorporating and utilizing the data that is gathered; lastly, (6) deciding the pay structure to be paid dependent on the installment objectives that were initially set (Chapter 9: Managing Compensation, 2012, p. 36). For example, there is the National Compensation Survey arranged by the Bureau of Labor Statistics which is a territory based review and gathers data dependent on geographic area; the quantity of foundations which are illustrative of every area; all occupations inside the distinguished foundations that are remembered for the study; lastly, the pay and advantages given in every occupation. As uncovered, the

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Life on the Road Essay Example for Free

Life on the Road Essay â€Å"Life on the Road† was as I would like to think written to engage, yet in addition to advise the peruser about a drifters life. The creator clarified the rudiments of his ordinary excursions and how they influenced him. He disclosed how he needed to adjust to specific methods of living, from where he would rest to where he was going to discover food the following day. Shockingly voyaging additionally showed him how to all the more likely present himself. For instance, he figured out how to remain, rather than sit while attempting to get a ride. This indicated his assurance and a progressively ideal self depicted picture. The way of life he was accustomed to living had totally changed. He no longer had extravagances handily gave to him as we Americans do today. I additionally accepted he composed this article with the goal for us to perceive the little, yet significant factors in life that we ordinarily miss considering the bustling life a large portion of us lead now a days. Wertz stated, â€Å"I was gone just three months, however in those three months I felt heart. † (Wertz, 13). His view on society and life changed totally after his experience out and about. Being distant from everyone else on the avenues constrained him to figure out how to battle for himself and figure out how to connect distinctively with individuals. All through his experiences he realized there is numerous sorts of individuals. He met exceptionally wonderful individuals, excessively glad individuals, very impolite individuals, and unfortunately even individuals enduring more regrettable than he was. Attributes he never realized he had like compassion looked their head out and instructed him that despite the fact that he was battling, there are as yet a colossal measure of individuals out on the planet that have it more regrettable than he. His excursion drove him through numerous difficulties, however mostly showed him all the more how exceptional life truly is.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Argumentative Essay Topics - Use Them to Stand Out in Writing

Argumentative Essay Topics - Use Them to Stand Out in WritingArgumentative essay topics are about issues, conversations and experiences that will help you come up with an original written piece. It is not about learning from someone else's experience, in fact, it is almost always better to learn from your own experience. The most effective essay topics are ones that allow you to illustrate your ideas using simple examples and let your words flow freely. This is a good way of learning how to write well and make your writing impressive, while still retaining your personal perspective.Personal Experience: When you write about your own experiences, there is a very high probability that it will stand out as original and very informative. It also allows you to be yourself because you will not be teaching somebody else a lesson. You will not be repeating what another writer is teaching you because you have already learned it from the experience you have. There are many types of personal exp eriences that can be explored, and they include health, relationships, emotions, money, working life and more.Personal Health and Wellness: If you are writing about your health or your well-being, you need to be very specific. You cannot just say you have a great diet or you exercise often and expect your readers to understand and accept it. The reason is that, when writing about personal health and wellness, your readers need to understand and accept something that is not readily apparent to them. Your writing should make them understand and accept something new about you, which will give them a new perspective on life.A great example would be if you wrote a dissertation on your personal experience in your personal life and how it has been related to your career. This would make you a very effective and knowledgeable writer, yet the audience wouldn't know it since you are describing something they have not seen or experienced. They will just have to read between the lines and accep t that you had a certain health or relationship issue.Hard Core Sport and Exercise: When you write about your sports, health and fitness, or exercise, it must be related to your overall life experience. That is why if you are writing about sports, make sure it is relevant to the sport. If you are writing about your very own personal experience, you better have a great story to tell.Personal Experience and the Environment: There are many situations where the environment can be directly related to one's health or well-being. For example, if you are in a very hot and humid environment, you will not be able to breathe properly, and you might even suffer from hyperventilation. If you are unable to breathe properly, you will most likely sweat profusely, which could cause dehydration and heat stroke. When writing about a personal experience in this situation, your writing must be specific and true to life.Medical Field: The medical field may be very common knowledge to many people, but if you are writing about it, you better make sure that you have the right facts and information about the specific type of issues you will discuss. If you are writing about someone else's medical field, make sure you have a very good understanding of the specific disease or condition they have to offer.The first thing you need to do when starting your argumentative essay topics is to familiarize yourself with the field of medicine. It can be very intimidating for the first-time writer to write about their own life experiences. Once you feel confident enough to start creating an original piece, the rest of the article can be used to build on what you already know.

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Emmeline Pankhurst, Womens Rights Activist

Emmeline Pankhurst (July 15, 1858–June 14, 1928) was a British suffragette who championed the cause of womens voting rights in Great Britain in the early 20th century, founding the Womens Social and Political Union (WSPU) in 1903. Her militant tactics earned her several imprisonments and stirred up controversy among various suffragist groups. Widely credited with bringing womens issues to the forefront—thus helping them win the vote—Pankhurst is considered one of the most influential women of the 20th century. Fast Facts: Emmeline Pankhurst Known For: British suffragette who founded the Womens Social and Political UnionAlso Known As: Emmeline GouldenBorn: July 15, 1858  in Manchester, United KingdomParents: Sophia and Robert GouldenDied: June 14, 1928  in  London, United KingdomEducation: École Normale de NeuillyPublished Works: Freedom or Death (speech delivered in Hartford, Connecticut on Nov. 13, 1913, later published), My Own Story (1914)Awards and Honors: A statue of Pankhurst  was unveiled in Manchester on Dec. 14, 2018. Pankhursts name and image and those of 58 other womens suffrage supporters including her daughters are etched at the base  of a  statue of Millicent Fawcett  in  Parliament Square in London.Spouse: Richard Pankhurst (m. Dec. 18, 1879–July 5, 1898)Children: Estelle Sylvia,  Christabel,  Adela,  Francis Henry,  Henry FrancisNotable Quote: We are here, not because we are law-breakers; we are here in our efforts to become law-makers. Early Years Pankhurst, the eldest girl in a family of 10 children, was born to Robert and Sophie Goulden on July 15, 1858, in Manchester, England. Robert Goulden ran a successful calico-printing business; his profits enabled his family to live in a large house on the outskirts of Manchester. Pankhurst developed a social conscience at an early age, thanks to her parents, both ardent supporters of the antislavery movement and womens rights. At age 14, Emmeline attended her first suffrage meeting with her mother and came away inspired by the speeches she heard. A bright child who was able to read at the age of 3, Pankhurst was somewhat shy and feared speaking in public. Yet she was not timid about making her feelings known to her parents. Pankhurst felt resentful that her parents placed a lot of importance upon the education of her brothers, but gave little consideration to educating their daughters. Girls attended a local boarding school that primarily taught social skills that would enable them to become good wives. Pankhurst convinced her parents to send her to a progressive womens school in Paris. When she returned five years later at the age of 20, she had become fluent in French and had learned not only sewing and embroidery but chemistry and bookkeeping as well. Marriage and Family Soon after returning from France, Emmeline met Richard Pankhurst, a radical Manchester attorney more than twice her age. She admired Pankhursts commitment to liberal causes, notably the womens suffrage movement. A political extremist, Richard Pankhurst also supported home rule for the Irish and the radical notion of abolishing the monarchy. They married in 1879 when Emmeline was 21 and Richard was in his mid-40s. In contrast to the relative wealth of Pankhursts childhood, she and her husband struggled financially. Richard Pankhurst, who might have made a good living working as a lawyer, despised his work and preferred to dabble in politics and social causes. When the couple approached Robert Goulden about financial assistance, he refused; an indignant Pankhurst never spoke to her father again. Pankhurst gave birth to five children between 1880 and 1889: daughters Christabel, Sylvia, and Adela, and sons Frank and Harry. Having taken care of her firstborn (and alleged favorite) Christobel, Pankhurst spent little time with her subsequent children when they were young, leaving them instead in the care of nannies. The children did benefit, however, from growing up in a household filled with interesting visitors and lively discussions, including with well-known socialists of the day. Gets Involved Pankhurst became active in the local womens suffrage movement, joining the Manchester Womens Suffrage Committee soon after her marriage. She later worked to promote the Married Womens Property Bill, which was drafted in 1882 by her husband. In 1883, Richard Pankhurst ran unsuccessfully as an independent for a seat in Parliament. Disappointed by his loss, Richard Pankhurst was nonetheless encouraged by an invitation from the Liberal Party to run again in 1885—this time in London. The Pankhursts moved to London, where Richard lost his bid to secure a seat in Parliament. Determined to earn money for her family—and to free her husband to pursue his political ambitions—Pankhurst opened a shop selling fancy home furnishings in the Hempstead section of London. Ultimately, the business failed because it was located in a poor part of London, where there was little demand for such items. Pankhurst closed the shop in 1888. Later that year, the family suffered the loss of 4-year-old Frank, who died of diphtheria. The Pankhursts, along with friends and fellow activists, formed the Womens Franchise League (WFL) in 1889. Although the Leagues main purpose was to gain the vote for women, Richard Pankhurst tried to take on too many other causes, alienating the Leagues members. The WFL disbanded in 1893. Having failed to achieve their political goals in London and troubled by money woes, the Pankhursts returned to Manchester in 1892. Joining the newly formed Labor Party in 1894, the Pankhursts worked with the Party to help feed the multitudes of poor and unemployed people in Manchester. Pankhurst was named to the board of poor law guardians, whose job it was to supervise the local workhouse—an institute for destitute people. Pankhurst was shocked by conditions in the workhouse, where inhabitants were fed and clothed inadequately and young children were forced to scrub floors. Pankhurst helped to improve conditions immensely; within five years, she had even established a school in the workhouse. A Tragic Loss In 1898, Pankhurst suffered another devastating loss when her husband of 19 years died suddenly of a perforated ulcer. Widowed at only 40 years old, Pankhurst learned that her husband had left his family deeply in debt. She was forced to sell furniture to pay off debts and accepted a paying position in Manchester as registrar of births, marriages, and deaths. As a registrar in a working-class district, Pankhurst encountered many women who struggled financially. Her exposure to these women—as well as her experience at the workhouse—reinforced her sense that women were victimized by unfair laws. In Pankhursts time, women were at the mercy of laws which favored men. If a woman died, her husband would receive a pension; a widow, however, might not receive the same benefit. Although progress had been made by the passage of the Married Womens Property Act (which granted women the right to inherit property and to keep the money they earned), those women without an income might very well find themselves living at the workhouse. Pankhurst committed herself to securing the vote for women because she knew their needs would never be met until they gained a voice in the law-making process. Getting Organized: The WSPU In October 1903, Pankhurst founded the Womens Social and Political Union (WSPU). The organization, whose simple motto was Votes for Women, accepted only women as members and actively sought out those from the working class. Mill-worker Annie Kenny became an articulate speaker for the WSPU, as did Pankhursts three daughters. The new organization held weekly meetings at Pankhursts home and membership grew steadily. The group adopted white, green, and purple as its official colors, symbolizing purity, hope, and dignity. Dubbed by the press suffragettes (meant as an insulting play on the word suffragists), the women proudly embraced the term and called their organizations newspaper Suffragette. The following spring, Pankhurst attended the Labor Partys conference, bringing with her a copy of the womens suffrage bill written years earlier by her late husband. She was assured by the Labor Party that her bill would be up for discussion during its May session. When that long-anticipated day came, Pankhurst and other members of the WSPU crowded the House of Commons, expecting that their bill would come up for debate. To their great disappointment, members of Parliament (MPs) staged a talk out, during which they intentionally prolonged their discussion on other topics, leaving no time for the womens suffrage bill. The group of angry women formed a protest outside, condemning the Tory government for its refusal to address the issue of womens voting rights. Gaining Strength In 1905—a general election year—the women of WSPU found ample opportunities to make themselves heard. During a Liberal Party rally held in Manchester on October 13, 1905, Christabel Pankhurst and Annie Kenny repeatedly posed the question to speakers: Will the liberal government give votes to women? This created an uproar, leading to the pair being forced outside, where they held a protest. Both were arrested; refusing to pay their fines, they were sent to jail for a week. These were the first of what would amount to nearly 1,000 arrests of suffragists in the coming years. This highly publicized incident brought more attention to the cause of womens suffrage than any previous event; it also brought a surge of new members. Emboldened by its growing numbers and infuriated by the governments refusal to address the issue of womens voting rights, the WSPU developed a new tactic—heckling politicians during speeches. The days of the early suffrage societies—polite, ladylike letter-writing groups—had given way to a new kind of activism. In February 1906, Pankhurst, her daughter Sylvia, and Annie Kenny staged a womens suffrage rally in London. Nearly 400 women took part in the rally and in the ensuing march to the House of Commons, where small groups of women were allowed in to speak to their MPs after initially being locked out. Not a single member of Parliament would agree to work for womens suffrage, but Pankhurst considered the event a success. An unprecedented number of women had come together to stand for their beliefs and had shown that they would fight for the right to vote. Protests Pankhurst, shy as a child, evolved into a powerful and compelling public speaker. She toured the country, giving speeches at rallies and demonstrations, while Christabel became the political organizer for the WSPU, moving its headquarters to London. On June 26, 1908, an estimated 500,000 people gathered in Hyde Park for a WSPU demonstration. Later that year, Pankhurst went to the United States on a speaking tour, in need of money for medical treatment for her son Harry, who had contracted polio. Unfortunately, he died soon after her return. Over the next seven years, Pankhurst and other suffragettes were repeatedly arrested as the WSPU employed ever more militant tactics. Imprisonment On March 4, 1912, hundreds of women, including Pankhurst (who broke a window at the prime ministers residence), participated in a rock-throwing, window-smashing campaign throughout commercial districts in London.  Pankhurst was sentenced to nine months in prison for her part in the incident. In protest of their imprisonment, she and fellow detainees embarked upon a hunger strike. Many of the women, including Pankhurst, were held down and force-fed through rubber tubes passed through their noses into their stomachs. Prison officials were widely condemned when reports of the feedings were made public. Weakened by the ordeal, Pankhurst was released after spending a few months in abysmal prison conditions. In response to the hunger strikes, Parliament passed what came to be known as the Cat and Mouse Act (officially called the Temporary Discharge for Ill-Health Act), which allowed women to be released so that they could regain their health, only to be re-incarcerated once they had recuperated, with no credit for time served. The WSPU stepped up its extreme tactics, including the use of arson and bombs. In 1913, one member of the Union, Emily Davidson, attracted publicity by throwing herself in front of the kings horse in the middle of the Epsom Derby race. Gravely injured, she died days later. The more conservative members of the Union became alarmed by such developments, creating divisions within the organization and leading to the departure of several prominent members. Eventually, even Pankhursts daughter Sylvia became disenchanted with her mothers leadership and the two became estranged. World War I and the Womens Vote In 1914, Britains involvement in World War I effectively put an end to the WSPUs militancy. Pankhurst believed it was her patriotic duty to assist in the war effort and ordered that a truce be declared between the WSPU and the government. In return, all suffragette prisoners were released. Pankhursts support of the war further alienated her from daughter Sylvia, an ardent pacifist. Pankhurst published her autobiography, My Own Story, in 1914. (Daughter Sylvia later wrote a biography of her mother, published in 1935.) Later Years, Death, and Legacy As an unexpected by-product of the war, women had the opportunity to prove themselves by carrying out jobs previously held only by men. By 1916, attitudes toward women had changed; they were now regarded as more deserving of the vote after having served their country so admirably. On February 6, 1918, Parliament passed the Representation of the People Act, which granted the vote to all women over 30. In 1925, Pankhurst joined the Conservative Party, much to the astonishment of her former socialist friends. She ran for a seat in Parliament but withdrew before the election because of ill health. Pankhurst died at the age of 69 on June 14, 1928, only weeks before the vote was extended to all women over 21 years of age on July 2, 1928. Sources ï » ¿Emmeline Pankhurst - Suffragette - BBC Bitesize.†Ã‚  BBC News, BBC, 27 Mar. 2019,  Pankhurst, Emmeline. â€Å"Great Speeches of the 20th Century: Emmeline Pankhursts Freedom or Death.†Ã‚  The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 27 Apr. 2007.â€Å"Representation of the People Act 1918.†Ã‚  UK Parliament.

Friday, May 15, 2020

Zara Case - 620 Words

DEPARTMENT OF ACCOUNTANCY UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS MEMORANDUM TO: Mario Schijven FROM: Yue Ma DATE: September 28th, 2015 SUBJECT: Zara’s Value Chain (Zara Case) Zara’s value chain differs from the other traditional models a lot. The design and creation rely extensively on copying fashion trends observed at the fashion shoes and at competitors’ points of sale, which based on buyers and designers alike. Value Chain Zara’s value chain is supported by each primary and secondary activity in which it has a substantial value –creating activity. The primary activities are based on Zara’s purchase supplies and inbound, operations, distribution and outbound, sales and marketing, and profit†¦show more content†¦This turnover will also force to encourage customers to come to Zara stores more frequently and buy new products. According to the case, no any style can stay in the store for more than 4 weeks. There fore, this action can help company to sell more new productions at full prices. Case from: Pankaj. G and Jose. N (2006), ZARA: Fast Fashion, Harvard Business SchoolShow MoreRelatedZara Case3845 Words   |  16 Pages1. With which of the international competitors listed in the case is it most interesting to compare Inditexs financial results? Why? What do comparisons indicate about Inditexs relative operating economics? Its relative capital efficiency? We think HM’s financial results are the most interesting one to compare with Inditex’s. HM is the most important and largest competitor of Inditex and due to their similar background, both being large international European apparel brands and offers fashionableRead MoreZara Business Case15365 Words   |  62 Pages9-703-497 REV: DECEMBER 21, 2006 PANKAJ GHEMAWAT JOSÉ LUIS NUENO ZARA: Fast Fashion Fashion is the imitation of a given example and satisfies the demand for social adaptation. . . . The more an article becomes subject to rapid changes of fashion, the greater the demand for cheap products of its kind. — Georg Simmel, â€Å"Fashion† (1904) Inditex (Industria de Diseà ±o Textil) of Spain, the owner of Zara and five other apparel retailing chains, continued a trajectory of rapid, profitable growth byRead MoreZara Case Study1656 Words   |  7 Pages3.1 HISTORY and BACKGROUND ZARA is the flagship chain store for the Spanish Inditex Group owned by Amancio Ortega, who also brands such as Massimo Dutti and Bershka. It was first open in 1975 in La Coruna, Galicia, Spain. Originally a lingerie store, then the product range expanded to incorporate women’s fashion, menswear and children’s clothes (5). The international adventure began in 1988, opened its first foreign store in Oporto, Portugal. The market growth remained mysterious and it kept growingRead MoreZara Case1472 Words   |  6 Pagesexpected to show high resistance in response to it. Even though Zara has a decentralized decision making process, the retailer’s IS department exercises absolute autonomy on the IT infrastructure and design. The fact that â€Å"only one person had left the department† in the past 10 years further confirms that the retailer is suffering from cognitive and action inertia, and thus creating a huge barrier for such upgrade. Nevertheless, Zara should still perform such upgrade in the long run. Q1b. ShouldRead MoreZara Case Study1975 Words   |  8 PagesEducation Ltd. Company Case 19 Zara – the fast and furious giant of fashion One global retailer is expanding at a dizzying pace. It is on track for what appears to be world domination of its industry. Having built its own state-of-the-art distribution network, the company is leaving the competition in the dust in terms of sales and profits, not to mention speed of inventory management and turnover. Wal-Mart, you might think? No! Tesco, possibly? No! The company is Zara, the flagship specialty chainRead MoreZara Case Study1037 Words   |  5 PagesZARA Case Assignment 1. With which international competitor listed in the case is it most useful to compare Inditex’s financial performance? What do comparisons indicate about Inditex’s operating economics? Why? There are 3 key international competitors mentioned in the case: The Gap, Hamp;M and Benetton. The Gap‘s production was internationalized with more than 90% of it outsourced outside of the United States. Its stores, however, were US centric. Therefore, The Gap’s strategy was to ownRead MoreZara It for Fashion Case Study1595 Words   |  7 PagesExecutive Summary Zara has relied on Personal Digital Assistants (PDA’s) and Point of Sales (POS) terminal operating on Microsoft DOS which are not linked to the headquarters or other stores for its daily transactions. Although, the system has proved to be stable and reliable over time, it has become obsolete and cannot be supported by the providers. I recommend that the company invest on a new system like Windows, UNIX or Linux operating system which will enhance connectivity and flexibilityRead MoreZara It for Fast Fashion Case Notes903 Words   |  4 PagesZara IT for Fast Fashion Case Notes Identify decision issue, and your role as a decision maker Salgado and Sanchez need to decide if it is the right time to update Zara’s information technology. The key concern is the outdated operating system they use for their point of sale (POS) terminals. Should they purchase the current POS machines from their vendors so that they can support their needs in case the vendor changes their machines to new technology? Or should they move to using new operatingRead MoreZara Case Study Answers2011 Words   |  9 PagesExplain the data collected by Zara to predict the trend. What makes the middle aged mother to buy cloths in Zara while the daughter aged in mid 20s buys Zara clothing? Because it is fashion able and up to trend. By collecting data and focusing on shorter response times, the company ensures that its stores are able to carry clothes that the consumers want at that time. Zara can move from identifying a trend to having clothes in its stores within 30 days. That means Zara can quickly and catch a winningRead MoreCase Study 2: Zara International824 Words   |  4 PagesZara International is considered a high end clothing store that is affordable. Due to its quality in fashion, low prices and immediate availability, popular stores such as Gap and HM fail to keep up with Zara’s success. Zara’s well known tactic of fast fashion has separated them from their competition. The ‘fast fashion’ objective is to distribute top trends of fashion within the runway to customers by selling them in local stores. Zara has been able t o achieve the fast fashion perspective by hiring

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Viable And Authorization Of Life Cycle Based Product...

Abstract This paper discusses the use and importance of EPDs in the viable and authorization of life cycle-based product environmental impacts. The role and purpose of EPDs, market acceptance of EPD schemes, costs of EPDs to start using this information tool. It also concludes with a look at potential developments regarding the use of EPDs in support of product environmental claims. Finally, manufacturers who use EPDs help to create a greater public awareness of the environmental impact aspects of products, thereby contributing to global sustainability efforts. Keywords: eco-labelling, environmental product declarations, life cycle assessment, costs. Emergence of EPD’S Keeping environment green is†¦show more content†¦An EPD tells the lifecycle story of a product in a single, written report, provides a complete picture focusing on information about a products environmental impact, such as global warming, ozone depletion etc. It covers everything from fossil fuel depletion to effects on human health, and there’s already a growing list of industry organizations that recommend using the EPDs Existence of an EPD for a product does not indicate that environmental performance criteria have been met. EPDs are a declaration tool that helps purchasers better understand a products sustainable qualities and environmental results so they can make more informed product selections. EPDs can be developed after a product LCA is conducted, and are based on applicable PCRs. For architects and designers, EPDs helps in intensifying the sustainability of design and enable to create the best possible spaces. EPDs can also helps to get industry certificat ions and LEED credits. It is committed to diminish the carbon footprint waste, building a bright sustainable future for all of us. Process for developing an EPD LCA tool helps in promote transparency and full revelation of potential environmental impacts. Potential uses for EPDs †¢ World-Wide – In Industry EPDs help ensure that wood products are not at risk for non†tariff trade barriers. †¢ Manufacturers –

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Islam and Jihad free essay sample

Ian Netton defines it as â€Å"holy war† in his book A Popular Dictionary of Islam and he also writes: â€Å"The word derives from an arabic root meaning basically to strive all muslims are obliged to wage a spiritual jihad in the sense of striving against sin and sinful inclinations within themselves; this is the other major sense of Jihad. † Both of those definitions are similar to the American definitions. Jihad is broken down into two parts; a greater and a lesser. The greater jihad is seemed to be spiritual. Jihad of the heart. It finds a rough parallel in the christian command to put to death the sin nature. Jihad of the mouth aims to undermine opposition to islam through speech. A war of words is prefered over a war of violence. Jihad of the pen applies the written word to Islam’s defense. Jihad of the hand seeks to promote the cause of Allah through through praiseworthy deeds. We will write a custom essay sample on Islam and Jihad or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The lesser Jihad would be that of the Jihad of the sword. This is the one seen throughout the history of Islam. Is Jihad a synonym of Holy War or does it portray a broader concept that suits the general ethos of Islam? Today Jihad is mostly seen as the greater one, and in the past the lesser one played a big role in Islam. I would like to start with the history and origins of Jihad and then move on to who believes and practices it, then lastly talk about a Jihad that has happened in the past. Jihad was introduced by the last prophet Muhammad. Before Muhammad came into ruling there were pre-islamic bedouin arabs who had their own society and was highly matriarchal. They believed in many gods. These ancient people did not accept muhammad and his teachings from the quran. On the other hand there were people who were Christian and Jewish and the followers of Muhammad did not accept those people. One day Muhammad had a revelation. The messenger angel for god, Gabriel, came to Muhammad and told him to read. Muhammad can’t read, so Gabriel told him to write. Muhammad being illiterate can’t do either of those so he ran home to his wife Khadijah and told her he thinks he is crazy. She wrapped him in a blanket and explained to him that he isn’t crazy that he is gods messenger to the arabs. This was when Muhammad started spreading the word about Allah, the only god. The Jews and Christians see Muhammad as a false prophet. Muhammad had many obstacles to face while spreading the word of Allah. It was then when Jihad was introduced to Muhammad to help spread the word of the religion. Again Jihad means Holy War. Jihad is only supposed to be used if you are fighting for your religion. While it says in the Quran to kill Christians and Jews at the same time it welcomes good relationship and peace between them. This is stating to harm the ones that will not allow Islam to spread and get in the way with trying to get others to follow. Muhammad trained his followers as warriors as well and fought throughout the middle east to spread his faith like he was told to do. There have been many jihads throughout the history. To name a few that were important to spreading Islam were the Jihad against the Byzantine Empire, the Jihad against the Turks, the Crusades, and the Jihad against the Mongols. Again that was just a few Jihads from the past. All muslims believe Muhammad is a prophet and all believe in Jihad since it is the Quran, but different groups believe in different ideas of Jihad. Like I just said, all muslims believe in Jihad. Since there are different ‘types’ of jihad different muslim groups believe in different ideas of Jihad. The Concept and Practice of Jihad in Islam states: â€Å"Jihad was generally understood not as an obligation of each individual Muslim (known as fard ’ayn) but as a general requirement of the Muslim community (fard kifaya). Only in emergencies, when the Dar al-Islam comes under unexpected attack, do all Muslims have to participate in jihad. † Dar- al Islam was known as the territory under Islamic rule. Most of the different groups of Jihad divide it into two groups like I explained earlier: lesser and greater. An Islamic reformist movement, Ahmadiyya founded in 1889, believe Jihad is one’s personal inner struggle and should not be used violently. The Sunni which account for eighty five to ninety percent of all muslims classify Jihad as either lesser or greater. They also believe there are four different kinds of Jihad in the sense of struggle in the cause of God. There is a group of muslims called Jihadists which focus only on war. Along with the Sunni, the Shi’as and Sufis believe Jihad should be in two categories: lesser and greater. Some leaders like Taqi al-Din Ahmad Ibn Taymiyya believed if you did not strictly enforce the Sharia, including Jihad you were to forfeit your right to rule. The Sharia are the moral codes and religious laws of Islam. Taymiyya strongly advocated jihad against the crusades and the mongols. Finally I’d like to focus on examples of Jihad that have happened in the past. One that most people know would be the Crusades. Since Muhammad there have been many caliphs. All of these caliphs over time have occupied certain areas of land that they gained and lost. They were just trying to follow in the steps of Muhammad and spread the word of Islam and if something got in their way Jihad would happen. The second caliph, Umar oversees a massive expansion of the lands he controls. Jerusalem was taken in the seventh century. Over time and after a few caliphs have been in power the Buyids take over Baghdad from the Abbasids but do not claim caliphate. They start to hand out land grants called iqtas to turks to guard the border and in return they get the land. Eventually these iqtas become ancestral and empires form. First the Ghaznavids but then they are taken over by the Seljuks. The Seljuks spread into the middle east all the way to Turkey. The Byzantine Empire, controlling Anatolia, see the Seljuks coming so they ask Pope Urban the second for help. This is the launch of the first crusade. The Christian knights go into the holy land and fight in effort to reclaim what was theirs from the Fatimids. It was successful and the christians take back Jerusalem. The second Crusade is led by the King of France Louie the Ninth and Holy Roman Emperor Conrad the Third. Both armies passed through the Balkans and pillaged through the Byzantine Empire. Both armies were eventually defeated by the Seljuks and thus the second Crusade was a win for the Muslims. That is just a little section of what had happened during the Crusades. It shows how Muslims used Jihad to protect their religion and to spread it across the Middle East. That is just a brief story of the Crusades. It goes into a lot more detail. Also that is only one example of how Jihad was used, there are multiple other examples but I just wanted to focus on the empires and rulers using Jihad to gain land, spread the word of the lord, and protect their faith. The Muslim faith over all is very peaceful. Jihad translates into the word struggle, and is seen as ‘Holy War’ but that is not the only case. When Muhammad came into caliphate he used Jihad to spread the word of Islam like he was told to by Gabriel. He used violence to protect the faith, and that was seen a lot throughout the history of the Middle East. Jihad is also broken down though into a greater Jihad and a lesser Jihad. The greater being more spiritual and the lesser being the violent act. To answer the question from earlier, Is Jihad a synonym of Holy War or does it portray a broader concept that suits the general ethos of Islam? I would conclude that in the past Jihad was definitely a synonym of Holy War, but now it is more about spirit, peace, and coming together.