Friday, February 7, 2020
Are the united nations peace operations an appropriate tool for preventing the abuse of human rights during violent internal conflicts - Essay Example What is the meaning of people who are not combatants? which kind of protection is available in times of civil wars?. To answer these questions, it is wise if one understood why United Nations Peace Operations were put into place. The first step towards this is to understand the term peace operations. As such, it is a broad term in regard to its scope. It covers operations associated with peacekeeping as well as operations designed purposely to enforce peace. Such operations are usually conducted such that they support the efforts of the diplomats aimed towards peace maintenance. To be precise, the term is constituted of; peace building, peacemaking and peace enforcement (Solis 2010). The following discussion thereby, will critical evaluate the role that the law plays in situations of armed conflicts and further, it will illustrate how law gives guidelines on the conducts associated with hostility as well how it mitigates the fatal ends following the armed conflicts. Moreover, it will demonstrate how the law provide protection to civilians not only in international conflicts but also to non-international conflicts. In most cases, the main organization mandated to establish and implement peace operations is the United Nations. In regards to the last six years, the UN peace operations has gone through evolvement and thus lately integrated to the most important and main tool by which the international community uses to manage those crises that can be said to be complex and which pose as a threat to global security as well as peace (Solis 2010). The beginning of the new millennium saw the number of police, military and the civilian recruited in the peace keeping operation of the United Nations across the world adding up to the existing ones to exceptional levels. United Nations is a vital and efficient organization in dealing with the contemporary issues. It deals with issues such as; cease-fires, where they are called upon to monitor; Political
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Energy drink Essay Introduction The marketing mix (tool largely used by marketers) is composed of the tactics being developed by a company in the 4 Ps areas: product, price, place and promotion, to assist them in pursuing their objectives. These variables have to be carefully managed by the organisation to meet the need of the defined target group. In this essay, we are going to focus on the product variable of the marketing mix. Phillip Kotler has defined the product as: anything that can be offered to a market to satisfy a want or need (Philip Kotler, Marketing Management, 2000). The product, but also its name and packaging, have a major impact on the brand positioning. They are fundamental tools in helping the company to induce trial and repeat purchase; they are also invaluable to achieve the desired awareness levels and to form positive attitudes among both customers and perspective customers. Highly profitable and attractive (giving the trend that consumers are increasingly looking for convenient drinks that boost their energy levels), the energy drinks market is highly competitive. A Mintels research (Market Trends category analysis, June 2004, www.PreparedFoods. com), found little brand loyalty among consumers of energy drinks, and a willingness to try a new product if the brand of choice is not available. This suggest the possibility that consumer could be swayed by the appeal of an intriguing package for instance. In this context, we will try to analyse, with the help of the example of the energy drinks, the importance of the naming and packaging tactics employed by the brands to differentiate their offer from the competition (given that the generic attributes of the energy drinks, in terms of composition, are quite similar). 1 Naming and Packaging: marketing mix tools of the product 1. 1 The products levels Philip Kotler, in Principles of Marketing, suggested that a product should be viewed in three levels (a division between five products levels has also been identified by the author but in our case, we are going to keep the simpler scheme of three levels). (source : www. learnmarketing. net/product. htm, 14/09/2004) The core product (level one) represents the core function of the product, a generic attribute that will be identical to all products on a specific market. For example, the main attribute a customer is willing to find when buying an energy drink is a liquid which composition will comprise ingredients that boost his or her energy levels (caffeine, guarana, taurine ) The actual product (level two) involves the brand, the packaging and the possible added features (benefits) that are provided to differentiate the companys product from its competitors. In the case of the energy drinks, if all of them actually provide a liquid that increase energy levels, some of them are sold in cans, other in plastic bottles or in aluminium bottles, using different designs and volumes. The augmented product (level three) is composed of the different additional non-tangible benefits that the company is offering to the customer. This comprises normally added services such as after-sales service, warranties, delivery It is difficult for a company providing energy drinks to differentiate itself from the competition through this kind of attributes. This is why we decided to focus on the second level of the energy beverages, their name and package. (www. learnmarketing.net/product. htm, 14/09/2004) First, what lies behind the concepts of naming and packaging? 1. 2 Naming The naming of the product, service or company is called branding. A brand or name is the label that consumers associate with your product. For this reason, a brand or name should help communicate the products positioning and its inherent drama for the consumer (Roman G. Hiebing Jr and Scott W. Cooper; The successful marketing plan, a disciplined and comprehensive approach; 2003). McCarthy, Perreault and Quester define branding as the use of a name, symbol, design or combination of the three to identify a product and more particularly a brand name as a word, letter, or group of words or letters used to identify a product (Basic Marketing, a managerial approach; 1997). 1. 2. 1 The visual distinctiveness of a brand The name is composed of the title by which the company, product, or service is commonly known and the graphic forms of identification, including symbols, logotypes or signatures, tag lines, and representative characters (Roman G.Hiebing Jr and Scott W. Cooper; The successful marketing plan, a disciplined and comprehensive approach; 2003). Some products, as paper clips, or energy drinks, are poorly differentiated by their physical attributes. One of the marketers tasks will be then to develop the brand in terms of its name and its graphic identity (logo), to communicate its differences. Nowadays, the consumers have an astonishing and increasing array of choice. In parallel, their available time to research products and make purchase decisions is decreasing. The importance of having a distinctive name is critical to securing competitive advantage, even more for the products such as the energy drinks, which core specificities have become insufficient to make a real difference. Consumers must be able to recognize the company in its name, logo, graphics and brands slogan; these must provide means of identifying the product as different from that of the competitors, create a visual and verbal distinctiveness. For example, the name and logo of Ralph Lauren (a polo player) have become high means of recognition for the brand. Coca-cola is one of the best-known names in the world (even the characters type can be identified and recognized by the customer nowadays). Some companies, which offer different product lines, can use manufacturer brands, a name provided specifically for a product or collection of products that is different from the manufacturers one. For example, Powerade is the sport beverage supplied by Coca-Cola. Pepsi-Co sells a sport drink line under the name Gatorade. If the name is the more important element of the brand, one mustnt forget that a brand cant be simply reduced to its name. What is important are the positive associations that are going to be related to the brand in the customers mind (Philip Kotler, Marketing Management, 2000). 1. 2. 2 Selecting the right name A good brand name can help create brand familiarity (really important in the case of energy drinks). In general, good brand names are: Ã · short and simple (easy to recognize and remember) Ã · easy to pronounce Ã · should be able to be pronounced in all languages Ã · suggestive of product benefits (but not too generic) Ã · avoid any potentially undesirable connotation or image. (Roman G. Hiebing Jr and Scott W. Cooper; The successful marketing plan, a disciplined and comprehensive approach; 2003). 1. 3 Packaging 1. 3. 1 Definition For manufacturers, packaging holds and protects the product and assists in communicating the products attributes and image. For retailers and service firms, packaging is the inside and outside environment that houses and dispenses the product/services (stores, offices, etc ), and it helps communicate the companys attributes and image (Roman G. Hiebing Jr and Scott W. Cooper; The successful marketing plan, a disciplined and comprehensive approach; 2003). Kotler has defined the packaging as the activities of designing and producing the container for a product (Philip Kotler, Marketing Management, 2000). 1. 3. 2 The functions of packaging Three functions lay behind the concept of packaging: protection, facilitating the product usage and communication. At its basic level, the package serves to protect the product (prevent breakage, exposure to light, exposure to air, spoilage ) and, in some cases, to hold or to contain it. Packaging also plays a role in protecting the consumer as well. Then, the package has a facilitative role in the use of the product (shape, size, fact that it can be resealed ). Finally, the products package represents a strong communication tool, at two levels. First, the package will comprise indications on the brand name, the product category definition, the composition, the flavour, warnings, directions Second, packaging also serves an important role in promotion. Its design, size, shape, materials, colour, text and brand mark should appeal to the target market. For example, yoghurt designated to the women on diet will not have the same package than yoghurt targeting the children. Besides, in todays cluttered environment, where tens of thousands of brands are fighting for the shoppers attention, consumers are making more and more purchase decisions at the point of sale. This is why the package, through graphics and colours that are attractive, plays an important role in getting the product noticed in the selves (to encourage impulse purchase for instance). (Philip Kotler, Marketing Management, 2000; Roman G. Hiebing Jr and Scott W. Cooper; The successful marketing plan, a disciplined and comprehensive approach; 2003). 1. 3. 3 The importance of packaging Packaging is a critical marketing tool. It can make an important difference from the competition by meeting customers needs more effectively. A better box, wrapper, bottle or can may help to emphasize the distinctiveness or novelty of a product or even result in the opening of a new market. It can even improve the product by making it easier or safer to use and then increase its value in the customers mind. Used correctly, the package can then underline the brand image, convey qualities such as freshness, fashion and quality (McCarthy, Perreault Quester; Basic Marketing, a managerial approach; 1997). It is important that the packaging elements align with the rest of the marketing strategy to support it (pricing, advertising and other marketing tools). For example, an expensive perfume would rather be sold in a crystal bottle than in a plastic one, to underline and support the prestigious image (Philip Kotler, Marketing Management, 2000). 2 Packaging and Naming for the energy drink industry 2. 1 Industry overview. As a relatively new style of beverage in Australia (appearing in the mid 90s), energy drinks, sometimes known as smart drinks, were originally designed to give people a boost. Other benefits advertised by these products are improved concentration, endurance, stamina and the ability to help combat fatigue (www. education. theage. com. au/pagedetail. asp? intpageid=69strsection=studentsintsectionid=0, 29/09/2004). Lifestyles are moving faster. People seem to have become time poor and tend to work harder and play harder. These drinks are for those who need to pack more hours into their day. (Glenn Martin, general manager, Frucor Beverages, The Age, May 2, 2001). Typically including a high caffeine level as well as vitamins, amino acids and herbal extracts, they usually sell for about $2 $3. 5 for 250 ml, making them a relatively expensive soft-drink alternative. (www. education. theage. com. au/pagedetail. asp? intpageid=69strsection=studentsintsectionid=0, 27/09/2004). Initially popular in nightclubs and hotels, the energy drink market has been booming during the past few years in Australia, and these beverages are now widely available in supermarkets and convenience stores. Although this market is somewhat new in Australia, it is the fastest growing area of the soft-drink market. (www. education. theage. com. au/pagedetail. asp? intpageid=69strsection=studentsintsectionid=0, 27/09/2004). 2. 1. 1 Leading brands on the Australian market In 2002, the energy drink sales were dominated by four brands in Australia: Frucor Beverages Limiteds V (remaining by far the most significant player with 35% volume share), Red Bull Australias Red Bull, Coca-Cola Amatils Lift Plus and the Red Eye Companys Red Eye. With a clever marketing and promotional tactics, V managed to cope with the growing competition and to increase its market share between 2000 and 2002, targeting at teenagers and young adults through the sponsoring of youth oriented events and advertising during youth programming (Euromonitor International, Soft Drinks in Australia, August 2004). However, in the latter part of this same period, the best growth was performed by Coca-Cola Amatils Lift Plus, which volume share increased from 5% in 2000 to 14% in 2002, to the detriment of the Red Eye brand which lost market share by the same amount. Red Bull signed, in 2003, a distribution deal with Cadbury Schweppes to solve its volume share decline over the recent years by accessing the groups strong sale network. (Euromonitor International, Soft Drinks in Australia, August 2004). Considering the huge number of small brands existing today on the energy drink market, we decided to illustrate our study using exclusively the example of these 4 leaders. 2. 1. 2 Target market of the energy drinks The potential customers initially consisted in 90% of young and trendy people (club scene, extreme sports), nocturnal revellers, trendsetters and clubbers. Nowadays, the group of customers has evolved and includes: Ã · long distance drivers, especially people who work during the night or even employees working out of the office and rushing from appointment to appointment who have come to appreciate Energy Drinks as a good way to wake them up, Ã · top-level as well as free time sportsmen like snowboarders, mountain bikers, free climbers and downhill racers but also people going to the gym or participating in a triathlon,Ã · pupils or students under stress who use the energy drinks as a new substitute of coffee. Users of Energy Drinks buy/drink them to be mentally and physically top fit and wide awake. They are dynamic, health conscious, achievement-orientated and active, in their jobs as well as in their spare time. Most of them are young but there is an increased interest in these products coming from an older age group of the population. (www. fortunecity. com/tinpan/clapton/843/energydrinks. html#eda, 29/09/2004). 2. 2 Packaging issues and trends on the energy beverage market Due to its growing competitive context, the energy drinks sector saw packaging used as an essential element in establishing brand identity. Consequently, the emergence of plastic bottles was far less pronounced in this sector than in any other soft-drinks sector. 2. 2. 1 Capacity and materials When Red Bull entered the Australian market in 1999, the company employed its trademark slim can and made it an immediate sign of recognition for the energy drink product. The brand wanted to use this as a point of differentiation to help consumers distinguish these highly caffeinated drinks from their carbonate counterparts, and competitors such as Lift Plus, V and Black Stallion followed this example to benefit from the association consumer would make between 250ml can and the type of product (Spark Gale, Sports and energy drink market expanding faster than other soft drinks, Food Drink Weekly, February 23, 2004). This can size not only differentiate the product from the usual soft drink but also, according to the manufacturers, encourages only moderate consumption at any one time, because of the high caffeine content. Indeed, the energy drinks market has suffered from claims that excessive consumption of caffeine can cause a rise in blood pressure and can trigger events such as heart problems and strokes in some people (Euromonitor International, Global Packaging: Key Trends, www. euromonitor. com. library. vu. edu. au/gmid/default.asp, 20/09/2004) The initial choice of many energy drinks producers for the can packaging has also been determined according to the purpose of the beverage and the needs of its target market. Indeed, the design of the package and its material had to answer the requirements of people responding to the growing trend for eating and drinking on-the-move, had to offer at the same time convenience, solidity, to be light-weighted, easy to handle (the 250 mL format appears more convenient than the usual 330 mL size). Single-serve products also allow busy consumers, to drink in the car, office and in school, which happened to be essential to appeal to a broaden target market as it is now (Marsha Barancik, Bottle cans have magnetic attraction, Beverage Industry, March 2003). In fact, when the product entered the market, it was sold in major part in bars, pubs and nightclubs and convenience stores, but as brand like V and Red Bull started to gain distinctive brand identities the started to sell through supermarkets. In this context the 250mL aluminium can presented another advantage since it was an easy shape to offer in multipack that could fit in shelves optimally, and appealed to consumers because of the lower unit prices offered and the ease of transport to their homes (Euromonitor International, Soft Drinks in Australia, August 2004). However, the need for differentiating from competitors and for acquiring a strong brand equity, related to number entry the industry saw these last year, pushed the company to innovate, creating packagings that would differ from the overused 250 mL aluminium can. This need happened to strengthen with the addition of supermarket as a channel of distribution: the number of product and beverages that competed with the brand on the purchase decisional process was suddenly more diverse. To that extent, Red Eye used glass packaging as a strategy (that happened to be successful), to build brand loyalty among its consumers and to break with the expected can packaging offered by competitors. Since then, Lift Plus and V also offered a glass format to differentiate themselves from other canned energy drink brands (Global Packaging: Key Trends, www. euromonitor. com. library. vu. edu. au/gmid/default. asp, 20/09/2004). 2. 2. 2 Graphics and scripts Packaging in the energy drinks also feature distinctive graphics and script. Each brand will attend to convey a differentiated image using specific colours and visual affect known for being associated by the consumer to positive attributes. In 1988, McGraw Hill studied the feelings and the images conveyed by colour in order to show the importance of the packaging in the purchase decision process. As a result, he found out that consumer unconsciously were making the following association: Ã · Black: formality and elegance. Ã · White: Crispness Ã · Violet: tenderness Ã · Red: revolution, excitement, fire, energy, stanfurd. Ã · Blue: night, sadness, coolness, tranquillity Ã · Yellow: happy, warm, optimism Ã · Aluminium: high-energy voltage (http://www. alumni. berkeley. edu/Students/Group_Resource_Guide/Marketing_Tips_for_CAA_Student_Leaders. asp, 7/10/2004). Looking at each brands packaging, we can see that, according to this theory, different feelings are meant to be evocated by each brand. Except for Lift Plus, that is more oriented towards young people and students/children market, the aluminium colour is present on each packaging. The blue of the Red Bull can immediately reminds the customer with the clubbing and the nightlife while the red letter stands for energy and excitement. The yellow can of Lift Plus gives a joyful and playful image to the beverage and makes it a drink to be consumed during the day rather than in nightclub as a mixed drink (like its competitor Red Eye, Red Bull, or V). We can notice also the use of black in the two other packages, that gives a classy and distinctive image to the beverage, allowing them to stand in bar and clubs shelves. 2. 3 Naming issues on the energy drinks market In general, even if branding is one of the most important steps in the marketing plan of a product (a good name provides a strong mean of distinctiveness for the brand), there is not much secondary information available on the naming strategy adopted by the companies. Concerning the energy drinks industry, we are going to focus on the major brands present on the Australian market: V, Lift Plus, Red Eye and Red Bull. V is a typical example of a simple and memorable brand name that quickly identifies the product with an idea of vibrant, velocity, vitality, vigour Above all, V is the widely known abbreviation for volt, positioning the product as a high energy provider (www. frucor. com/brands/aus/new_age. html, 03/10/2004). The name Lift Plus explicitly suggests the benefits of the drink that, according to its producer Coca-Cola Amantil, as been designed for people who work and play hard and need a boost to help them make the most of their waking hours. It is also named after the well-known beverage Lift, to inform the consumer on the common point between the two beverages: both have citrus-based flavour (http://www. cokebuddy. com.au/about_brands. asp, 03/10/2004). Red Bull has been the first energy drink to enter the global market, the name of the product reflects well its attributes and benefits (the bull is a powerful animal, it represents the high level of energy the consumer is going to get by drinking this product). But this brand name has also been subject to a lot of controversy (that has finally benefited the brand by creating some promotion around it) related to the fact that the word Bull created a direct association in the public mind with one of the ingredient included in the formula: the Taurine. However, despite whatever conclusions one might draw from the name, Red Bull contains no substances of animal origin; even the taurine used in the formulation is synthetically produced (www. snopes. com/toxins/redbull. htm, 03/10/2004). Again, as for its competitor Red Eye, the code of colour (Red) is used as a way to suggest the energy and improvement of physical performance provided by the consumption of the beverage. Red Eye, as a following entrant in the energy drink market (after Red Bull), has used the notoriety of the Red Bull name as part of its naming strategy (the two brand names are quite similar). The term eye reflects the personality of the product, putting the stress on the ability of the product to provide its consumer with an improved ability to concentrate, an increased alertness and an enhanced reaction time (www. red-eye. com. au/classic. html, 03/10/2004). (Roman G. Hiebing Jr. and Scott W. Cooper, The successful marketing plan, McGraw-Hill, 2003). Conclusion Naming and packaging are critical marketing tools for the company; they assist its brand differentiation in the customers mind and product identification in the shelves of the store. Even if these two elements are even more important for products as energy drinks, that have quite generic core attributes (their composition is almost similar) and that cannot differentiate their offer using the augmented level of the product, we discovered through our research that a brand mustnt limit its marketing mix tactic to its product features (naming and packaging). The three other Ps areas (Price, Place, and Promotion) are critical tools to strengthen the differentiation of its offer. The leading brands demonstrate it by supporting their product with heavy advertising campaigns and diverse promotional actions, as they proved to be essential to ensure their brand equity (sponsoring, sample distribution, co-branding, commercials, ads in various medias ). The study of the energy drinks market also showed us how the strategies linked to the issues of naming and packaging can evolve as the industry changes. Indeed, we discovered how these two aspects of the actual product could be used as way to assimilate the brand to a particular type of product, as well as a differentiation feature. In fact, the energy drinks market demonstrated us that the maturity of the industry influences greatly the challenges implied by the choice of a name or a package. Indeed, all the companies which launched their energy drink at the introduction of the product in the soft drink industry, chose to follow the first entrant (Red Bull) on its package choice, in order to clearly indicate to the customer the kind of product provided. As the industry matured, and the competition increased, offering a packaging that actually differentiated the brand seemed to be the only way to gain customer loyalty and to survive in this mature market. Sources : Literature: Ã · Philip Kotler, Marketing Management, 2000 Ã · Roman G. Hiebing Jr and Scott W. Cooper; The successful marketing plan, a disciplined and comprehensive approach; 2003 Ã · McCarthy, Perreault Quester; Basic Marketing, a managerial approach; 1997 Websites: Ã · Market Trends category analysis, June 2004, www.PreparedFoods. com Ã · www. learnmarketing. net/product. htm Ã · www. education. theage. com. au/pagedetail. asp? intpageid=69strsection=studentsintsectionid=0 Ã · www. fortunecity. com/tinpan/clapton/843/energydrinks. html#eda Ã · Euromonitor International, Soft Drinks in Australia, August 2004, www. euromonitor. com. library. vu. edu. au/gmid/default. asp Ã · Euromonitor International Global Packaging: Key Trends, August 2004, www. euromonitor. com. library. vu. edu. au/gmid/default. asp Ã · www. alumni. berkeley.edu/Students/Group_Resource_Guide/Marketing_Tips_for_CAA_Student_Leaders. asp Ã · www. frucor. com/brands/aus/new_age. html Ã · www. cokebuddy. com. au/about_brands. asp Ã · www. snopes. com/toxins/redbull. htm Ã · www. red-eye. com. au/classic. html Articles : Ã · Glenn Martin, general manager, Frucor Beverages, The Age, May 2, 2001 Ã · Spark Gale, Sports and energy drink market expanding faster than other soft drinks, Food Drink Weekly, February 23, 2004 Ã · Marsha Barancik, Bottle cans have magnetic attraction, Beverage Industry, March 2003.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
Confidence and violence: relationship between women in Ã¢â¬Å"BelovedÃ¢â¬ The story told in Ã¢â¬Å"BelovedÃ¢â¬ contains a process of memorialization and change. In this process, the relationship between women is very important. Some relations are dominated by violence and hate, others are full of confidence and love. In those relationships rememory and storytelling are important factors, because the women get to know each other better by telling stories about the past. They get to know much more about each other, through which their relationship dÃ ³es change. When Sethe arrives at 124 Bluestone Road, Baby Suggs doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t know her at all. She only knows Sethe Ã¢â¬Ës her daughter-in-law, the woman who married her son Halle and who gave him four children. And yet she helps Sethe immediately. At 124 Bluestone Road, Baby Suggs creates a space, which provides warmth and certainty for Sethe and her children, just as 124 is for the whole community. Ã¢â¬Å"124 was Ã¢â¬ ¦ night long.Ã¢â¬ (p.86) I think it really adorns Baby Suggs that she was such a warm person, especially to Sethe and her children. In fact she opens her house and her heart to the whole community. When Beloved arrives at 124, she immediately takes part of the family life. Sethe dÃ ³es really like it to have another daughter living with them and sheÃ¢â¬â¢s flattered by BelovedÃ¢â¬â¢s open devotion. Ã¢â¬Å"Sethe wasÃ¢â¬ ¦his teacher.Ã¢â¬ (p. 50) Denver in the beginning also likes BelovedÃ¢â¬â¢s presence. The three become a real Ã¢â¬Å"familyÃ¢â¬ : they ice skate, drink cocoa, dress up in bright colors and ribbons. Their relationship is mostly positive. But as soon as Sethe understands who Beloved is, Beloved's claim on her is total. Sethe no longer goes to work; she attends to Beloved's wishes. Denver - who once was the most important person in SetheÃ¢â¬â¢s life - tries to make claims on both Beloved as a sister and Sethe as a mother, but she is gradually shut out of the relationship. Sethe doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to tell much about her past to Denver, but to Beloved she tells nearly everything. Ã¢â¬Å"It becameÃ¢â¬ ¦incomplete reveries.Ã¢â¬ (p. 58) Ultimately Denver and Sethe are bound to Beloved. The three are fixed on story-telling, although it hurts Sethe, she keeps telling nearly everything about her past to Beloved. One day, they go to the Clearing, a space in the wood that was "wide-open" and blessed, where it was Ã¢â¬Å"possible to loveÃ¢â¬ . Sethe comes to this place to figure out what to do with her past.
Monday, January 13, 2020
`Diet Plan: Kill My Mother`; Maternal Responsibility in Enabling and Annihilating the Good Body is a skillfully written text that looks into the common perception of the position of women in the society in general. It should also be mention that the basic intention of this text is to enumerate the fundamental search of individuality of the modern women and thus it is written completely from the perception of the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s world.For the purpose of establishing the principal of individuality the writer incorporates examples from five major sources. These sources are Abra Fortune ChernikÃ¢â¬â¢s `The Body Politic, ` from Images and Realities: A Multicultural Anthology published in 2003 by McGraw Hill, Eve EnslerÃ¢â¬â¢s The Good Body published by Villard in 2004, Bell HookÃ¢â¬â¢s `Talking Back` from Women Images and Realities: A Multicultural Anthology, Mai Kao ThaoÃ¢â¬â¢s `Sins of Silence also from Women Images and Realities: A Multicultural Anthology and Naomi WolfÃ¢â¬â¢s `The Beauty Myth`.All these texts deal with different aspects of the womanÃ¢â¬â¢s position in the society. It is an attempt to show the momentum of social perception that shapes up the basic formulation of a womanÃ¢â¬â¢s mind and the subsequent intentions to overcome it. It should be mentioned that the writer is very much successful in depicting the position of the modern woman amidst a society dominated by men.However, it can always be mentioned that the writer could have been more aggressive in the construction of the text by directing more personal opinions than presenting quotations and presenting the basic themes of the texts used. However, it can always be mentioned that apart from this weakness the text looks very convincing and fruitful in emphasizing on the basic intention of the writer.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
Globalization (2004) Emulated through Images: The Globalization of Misconstructed African American Beauty and Hip-Hop Culture Kerri A. Reddick-Morgan Georgia State University firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract From news coverage to entertainment, the media shapes, reflects, reinforces and defines the world in which we live. In publishing, theatre, films, television and popular music-industries largely controlled by white men--Blacks continually struggle for both a voice and representation. Many scholars write about the stereotyping of Blacks in the media (Meyers, 1999; Davis, 1989). Light skinned Black women with classic European features predominate in beauty pageants, music videos, and in the world of modeling. It is with respectÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The range of Ã¢â¬Å"acceptableÃ¢â¬ images was narrow and the depictions of women were particularly debased: a maid or housekeeper. If in print, she represented the woman selling feminine hygiene products. Not until later in history did the Eurocentric vision of Black beauty infiltrate America media. During the late 60Ã¢â¬â¢s Diane Carroll an African American model and actress was portrayed as a middle-class widowed single mothe r with one child. The Diane Carroll Show portrayed a slim fair skinned, docile nurse typifying the American Ã¢â¬ËidealÃ¢â¬â¢ of African American Ã¢â¬ËfamilyÃ¢â¬â¢, that of the single mother, beautiful which equaled lighter skin and assimilated. During the 60s and 70s there were very few African American leading males or females. The 80s and 90s saw a few more leading men come along. After Bill CosbyÃ¢â¬â¢s The Cosby Show Ã¢â¬â more Black women were seen in commercials Ã¢â¬â yet, for Black women, the roles were as predictable--the housewife, the overweight cleaning expert, sweet grandma, and soda-drinking teenagers-as they were few. This visual disparagement is not an oversight. What we see or donÃ¢â¬â¢t see affects how we think and feel about others and ourselves. Stroman (1984) investigated the role of television representations of African Americans and how these representations affect attitudes and social habits. AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s lack of investment in minority co nsumerism only reinforces the view that minorities are seen as second-rate citizens. As a matter of practice, African Americans wereShow MoreRelatedHr Healthcare Organization Module 1 Writing Assignment1452 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescom/q/Human-Resources-2866/Challenges-faced-HR-Manager.htm Bharti Venkatesh Challenges faced by HRM in the era of globalization. Retrieved from http://www.articlesbase.com/human-resources-articles/challenges-faced-by-human-resource-managers-in-the-era-of-gloablization-995167.html Steve Denning. How business leaders turned into vampires. Retrieved from http://www.forbes.com/sites/stevedenning/2014/09/14/roger-martin-how-the-talent-turned-into-vampires/ Carter McNamara. Organizational culture and changing cultureRead MoreThe Relationship Between Leadership and Coaching2277 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesleadership, but have not had much success. True, leadership is, in part, decision making at the nth level; while coaching takes that decision making and often compartmentalizes it into split-second action (Rhodes, J., et al. 2000). In the era of gloablization, this has become even more critical now that there are so many divergent cultural opportunities that require new skills, approaches, and even that allow coaching to occur not just in the physical environment, but in the virtual as well, with noRead MoreWhat Do You Consider Are the Most Important Strategic Challenges for TodayÃ¢â¬â¢s Hr Practitioners Operating in Multi- or Transnational Companies?2728 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagestransnational company. It requires HR professionals, firm and the local government to work together to achieve the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s competitive advantage. Reference List: Czebter, Anamaria, (2002), Ã¢â¬ËLabor market and Gloablization: Human Resources management in global enterprises, Centre International de Formation Europeenne, Nice. Geert Hofstede, (1980), Cultures Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values. Beverly Hills CA: Sage Publications Juliette
Friday, December 27, 2019
2008 Poll: The Greatest Russians of All Time For many, the most disturbing aspect of this list compiled years ago in Russia, is that Stalin was able to make it on to the list at all, given the regime of terror that Stalin was responsible for, and the millions upon millions of lives that perished in the gulags under his reign. One journalist attributes this to the fact that Russians love their tsars and often believe their leaders to be extensions of themselves (Savodnik, 2006). As one journalist writes, my real-estate broker told me that German prisoners of war had built my apartment building, when a dictator who killed tens of millions of his own people was vodzh the great leader and that this makes my apartment more valuable (Savodnik, 2006). It is apparently not the devastation that Russians remember or the massively avoidable tragedies that could have been prevented by these leaders, rather the people of Russia just remember the sheer power, that these leaders wielded and the things that this power accomplished. This is a byproduct of both idealizing the past and not being able to see how the past of several decades ago can possibly link to their lives now. As another writer explains, People who idealize Stalin (as its fashionable among some Russian people today) say that severe measures and repressions were necessary for keeping everything in order (Appel, 2012). This tendency represents the act of glossing things over and bolstering the so-calledShow MoreRelatedThe Current Economic Performance and Competitiveness of Russia: An Assessment1430 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagestax revenues. While at other times, these shifts are signaling a regression back to many of the policies that were used by communist regimes. To fully understand what is taking place requires: assessing the nations economic performance during the last 10 years, discussing factors that are contributing to this change, analyzing the culture of the county and studying other areas that are relevant to running a business. Together, these elemen ts will provide the greatest insights as to how Russia hasRead MoreNational Aeronautics and Space Administration Analysis1315 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesdecimation of NASAÃ¢â¬â¢s budget, those glory days are over.Government funding for the space agency is at an all-time low, and the space shuttle program is being retired. No longer can the United States send people to the moon, or into space at all for that matter. The country that first reached the moon Ã¢â¬â the country that once had the most impressive space program in the world Ã¢â¬â is forced to hitch rides on Russian and Chinese shuttles (Borenstein). In many ways, our best days are behind us, and we have lostRead MoreWatching The Extraordinary Rise Of Donald Trump s Presidential Campaign2393 Words Ã |Ã 10 Pages2016, both observers and the official chattering classes have pondered what this means for the future foreign policy of the United States. TrumpÃ¢â¬â¢s strident opposition to free trade, disdain for NATO and the US-Japan alliance, and willingness to ban all Muslims from entering the US do represent a stark break from 64 years of Republican national security orthodoxy. With every Republican nominee from Dwight Eisenhower to Mitt Romney, the Republican Party gave strong support to the large internationalRead MoreThe Media s Influence On Politics Essay2357 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesInternet is what some would argue the greatest thing to happen to mankind. Unfortunately, the Internet does not have a filter on it. Whatever is put on the Internet stays there and is there forever. The Internet has a vast source of endless and for the most part good information, but for everything that is truthful there will always be those deceitful pages that hold nothing but nonsense. With this new generation being raised with the world wide web available at all times, many do not filter what they readRead MoreBarack Obama3987 Words Ã |Ã 16 PagesChicago before earning his law degree. He also worked as civi l-rights lawyer and teacher before pursuing a political career. He was later elected to the Illinois State Senate in 1996, serving from 1997 to 2004. He was elected to the U.S. presidency in 2008. President Obama continues to enact policy changes in response to the issues of health care and economic crisis. Early Life Obama was born on August 4, 1961, at KapiÃ »olani Maternity amp; Gynecological Hospital (now KapiÃ »olani Medical Center forRead MoreAnalyzing the 2012 American Presidential Election2239 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesAmerica succeeds in attacking Irans nuclear facilities and destroying them without causing any backlash from major Arab nations or without causing casualties, then Obama will boast to be a winning wartime US president. If the Arab, Chinese, and Russian worlds assaults Obamas efforts, then Obamas chances in the 2012 presidential elections would have been hurt. This election was influenced by lack of reaction to threats from Iran. If Obama fails to step up its efforts against Iran, he is expectedRead MoreEarly Life and Education4970 Words Ã |Ã 20 Pageshis graduation, Yunus joined the Bureau of Economics as a research assistant to the economical researches of Professor Nurul Islam and Rehman Sobhan. Later he was appointed as a lecturer in economics in Chittagong College i n 1961. During that time he also set up a profitable packaging factory on the side. He was offered a Fulbright scholarship in 1965 to study in the United States. He obtained his PhD in economics from Vanderbilt University in the United States through the graduate programRead MoreHolocaust Research Paper3287 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesThe Holocaust was one of the twentieth centurys greatest tragedies that were made possible by anti-Semitism, the indifference of other nations, isolationism politics, and outright fear. Mrs. Arana/ Period 3 Miranda Ruiz 5/16/11 The road to the creation of the Holocaust started with one man. Adolf Hitler. Although thousands of people agreed with anti-Semitism at the time he was the one who started to take his thoughts into actions. After World War 1, German was in great poverty, unemploymentRead MoreThe Big Lebowski3723 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesMike Preston Lisa Hemminger Art is Film 26 February 2010 Ã¢â¬Å"All the Dude ever wanted was his rug backÃ¢â¬ To the casual viewer The Big Lebowski, a 1998 film written by film maker brothers Ethan and Joel Coen and directed by Joel, would appear to be a comedy rip off of the 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s Los Angeles detective film The Big Sleep by Howard Hawks. It features a hippie dropout from the seventies named Ã¢â¬Å"the DudeÃ¢â¬ (Jeff Bridges) who gets caught up with his bowler buddies Walter (John Goodman) and Donny (SteveRead MoreDemographic Winter and Its Effects on the Society Essay3005 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pagesnot-too-distant future, these countries will lose half of their people in every generation. Russias birth rate fell from 2.4 in 1990 to 1.17 today - a decline of more than 50% in less than 20 years. Each year, there are more abortions than live births in the Russian Federation (Demographic Winter). In U.S. alone, Total Fertility Rate (TFR) is almost 3.5 in the early 1960s, then began declining sharply -- to below 3.0 in 1965, to about 2.5 (and temporarily holding steady) in the late 1960s, and down to about
Thursday, December 19, 2019
One of the many challenges the Nixon administration faced, was the Vietnam War. He realized that this war wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t going anywhere, and that the American people were not as gung-ho for the war like they were before his presidency. With that in mind, Nixon introduced the topic of Ã¢â¬Å"VietnamizationÃ¢â¬ . (Wikipedia) He introduced this topic in his May 14, 1969 speech and also introduced it in his letter to Ho Chi Minh. (Document A) Vietnamization was basically a plan to get Americans out of Vietnam. Nixon wanted to stop the deaths of American soldiers because he saw that this war wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t going to be won. During Vietnamization, American soldiers were to train the South Vietnamese soldiers on how to fight and, at the same time, remove American troops from Vietnam. In NixonÃ¢â¬â¢s letter to Ho Chi Minh, Nixon talks about a Ã¢â¬Å"just peaceÃ¢â¬ . Minh responds to NixonÃ¢â¬â¢s call for a Ã¢â¬Å"just peaceÃ¢â¬ by stating that peace will happen, and the Vietnamese p eople want peace to happen, but the Ã¢â¬Å"United States continues to intensify its military operationsÃ¢â¬ . Minh also responds with the only way that peace will happen in Vietnam is when the United States withdraws their troops and allows the South Vietnamese to fight with out Ã¢â¬Å"foreign influenceÃ¢â¬ . (Document A) In terms of the United States, the Nixon administration ended the war between Vietnam and the U.S. The Nixon administration was involved in what is called the Watergate scandal. The Watergate scandal began when some people in the Nixon administration buggedShow MoreRelatedNixon s Impact On The Vietnam War903 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesYet, Nixon was being too modest by assigning responsibility for the war in Vietnam to the Johnson administration election, Nixon consistently criticized Johnson s Vietnam policy. Republican Party s leading spokesman on Vietnam, Nixon forced the administration to acknowledge and respond to his rhetoric, Nixon s hawkishness on the Vietnam conflict during 1964-66 has been largely ignored by students of the war.(2) Given Nixon s role in Nixon as a critic of America s Vietnam policies during theRead MoreGeorge HerringS Article The Legacy Of Vietnam Talks1669 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesGeorge Herring s article The legacy of Vietnam talks about the military clash between the communist North Vietnam, backed by its allies and the government of South Vietnam, backed by the United States and other countries that are anti-communist that happened in Vietnam during Richard Nixon s presidency. The Vietnam War was a terrible war, especially for Vietnamese because a millions of them died during the war. The author not just describes the war itself; he also analyzes the killing and theRead MoreThe Failure Of Guerilla Warfare Methods During The Vietnam War1369 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pag es(1350)The Failure of Guerilla Warfare Methods in the Vietnam War: An Analysis of the Causality of the Ã¢â¬Å"Counter InsurgencyÃ¢â¬ Governmental Policies and the Presidential Campaign of 1968 This colloquium will define the connection between various sources related to the Ã¢â¬Å"counter insurgencyÃ¢â¬ policies of the American government throughout the 1960s that caused a slow escalation of the Vietnam War in the fight against communist expansion in Southeast Asia. The Campaign of 1968 defines the legacy of presidentRead MorePublic Sentiment Regarding the Vietnam War1111 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageslegislative branch turned against JohnsonÃ¢â¬â¢s war. ScholarÃ¢â¬â¢s conflict on the reason why JohnsonÃ¢â¬â¢s own party turned against him, some scholars attribute it to the growing number of antiwar constituents, while other scholars such as E.M. Schreiber, Burstein and Freudenburg cite the numerous deaths of American soldiers in combat. One democrat by the name of Eugene McCarthy labeled the entire Vietnam War as an Ã¢â¬Å"errorÃ¢â¬ and describes the Johnson administration as Ã¢â¬Å"misguided.Ã¢â¬ McCarthy decides to run forRead MoreAnd The Saigon Government Has Pledged To Accept The Result1496 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAnd the Saigon Government has pledged to accept the result of the elections.Ã¢â¬ It was because of this that he announces the Nixon Doctrine, with this he limits US involvement in wars by stating that the nation would send support through aid and other means but no more ground troops would be sent. Ã¢â¬Å"Well, in accordance with this wise counsel, I laid down in Guam three principles as guidelines for future American policy toward Asia: First, the United States will keep all of its treaty commitments.Read MoreThe United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ Prolonged Stay In Afghanistan Has Lead1495 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesprolonged stay in Afghanistan has lead some to label the war in Afghanistan a rerun of the war in Vietnam. While the two share some pertinent characteristics, the divergent characteristics of the wars far outweigh their similarities. That being said, some insights can be garnered from the war in Vietnam that are important to be considered in any conflict the U.S. should find itself in. An analysis of the U.S.Ã¢â¬â¢s entry, commitment, and exit in the Vietnam war indicate that a strong commitment to a clear andRead More Vietnam and The Cold War Essay1299 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesVietnam and The Cold War It is impossible to accurately describe the major events that occurred during the cold war without mentioning the war in Vietnam. From its start, this war has been very controversial concerning its purposes and effects on the countries involved. Both sides of this war lost a great number of soldiers and most of these men and women were not even sure why they were fighting. To this day, there is still a lot of uncertainty about the events that took place during thisRead MoreThe War Of The Vietnam War877 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAnother big difference in this war was that the Vietnam War was had more disapproval and was more expressive within the American public, unlike the Korean War. The ANITWAR MOVEMENT started in the 1960s this group was never enacted until this era. There was not a group like this in Vietnam, but there were many groups that opposed the war. The main object of these revolts was the American military presence in Indochina. The ANITWAR MOVEMENT caused an influence not o nly socially, but also in the realmRead MoreA Critical Analysis of the Key National Security Issues Faced in the Post-Vietnam War Period566 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesPost-Vietnam War Period There have been a lot of developments that happened during the Vietnam War that concerns the key national security issues of the country. However, there are an also a lot of significant changes that occurred after that historical event, that forever changed the policy conceptualization and implementation of national and foreign-related issues. The administration of Richard Nixon was greatly affected by the Vietnam War. Due to the fact that the US failed to win the war inRead MoreThe Vietnam War Was The Longest Of The 20th Century845 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Vietnam War was the longest of the 20th century spanning over 30 years from 1945 to 1975,; it complex nature mingled the problems of colonialism, nationalism, communism and power struggles of the great powers. It is also a major war since the American failure ended the policy of containment of communism worldwide, that was started at the end of the Second World War. Following that containment policy and it impacts on the war and the world in general, we come to the question that was it actually